For the third decade, the Digital Nephrology working group at Charité develops and refines an electronic health record of all kidney transplantation patients in Berlin. Based on these high quality data sets and aiming for optimal patient care, implementation of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) into clinical practice is a major goal. While pilot studies are already comparing the performance of AI-algorithms and experienced nephrologists in the prediction of clinically important outcomes, systematic investigations regarding the acceptance of AI-driven systems by physicians and patients, and the ethical and legal consequences involved, are sparse. Within the vALID project, we will deploy different uses cases of CDSS with increasing autonomy and various machine learning explainability techniques. Thereafter, in a study involving physicians working in our outpatient transplantation facility, we will collect data about the chances and risks from the healthcare professional’s and the patient’s perspective, as well as practical, ethical and legal issues, that arise in the context of this very special human-AI-interaction. This could be the starting point for a data-based, interdisciplinary discussion of AI in medicine.